When designing and developing training programs, it’s important to follow a model, such as ADDIE as a form of best practice. ADDIE is an acronym which stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. This model is accepted as the industry standard for Instructional Design and Technology. It ensures that the development of training programs is consistent and systematic, as well as efficient and effective. Although there are other Instructional Design models, they all follow the same basic concept.
This article will explain each phase of the ADDIE model, and how to incorporate it into your E-learning program. Following these steps as a form of best practice will help you achieve a successful training program.
PHASE I: Analysis/Need Assessment
- Identify the instructional problem.
- Define training goals and objectives.
- Identify the audience and their characteristics.
- Assess the learners’ existing skills and knowledge.
- Identify the delivery options – will the training be delivered in-person or online?
- If needed, identify how scheduling and attendance will be handled.
- Identify if there is a need for an LMS. If an LMS is on-hand, how will the training program be incorporated?
- Identify what training materials will be developed.
- Identify timeframe for development of the program.
PHASE II: Design
As the Instructional Designer, the next step is to design materials and plan the strategy to be used for the training program. This may include creation of a lesson plan, the layout and outline of a training manual, or the design for an online tutorial. It may also include design of a class or demonstration, depending on how the program will be delivered. The design phase will also include selection of one or more authoring tools needed to design your materials.
As part of the design phrase, create storyboards. Storyboards can be used as a step-by-step outline for your training program. These are an essential tool when designing a training program because they keep all team players on the same page while working together.
Next, design the user interface. How will learners access your training program? Will they login online and access the training program via the Internet? Will your training program be conducted in person? How will users they be notified? Will they receive an email, an internal announcement, a link on your website?
Finally, plan and design a prototype for your training program. This would be considered your “beta” phase. Prior to developing your entire training program, review your design with team players, SME’s and developers. If necessary, conduct a mock class or mock online tutorial including time estimates, sample outlines and summaries of what is planned to be included in the program.
PHASE III: Development
The next phase is the development of the training program. In this phase, you will create and assemble the training program and all associated materials necessary for a successful training program. The items to be developed are those defined in the design phase. Included in the development phase is testing and debugging procedures.
Development of your training program may include one or more of the following: a PowerPoint slideshow, an online demonstration, an interactive tutorial and/or an in-person presentation. Development may include use of tools such as Microsoft PowerPoint, Adobe Captivate, TechSmith Camtasia, TechSmith Snag-it, Adobe Photoshop, or other development tools, to name a few.
The tutorial or presentation may include screen captures, recorded screen activity, step-by-step instructions, interactive activities, or printer-friendly materials.
If a training manual is being developed, be sure to include:
- Cover Page
- Table of Contents
- Page Numbers
- Header and Footer
- Copyright and Disclosure Statement
- Proper Formatting
- Screen captures/images of covered material
Other reference material may include:
- Study Guides
- FAQ list
- Helpful Hints
- Printing Instructions
- Quick Reference Guides
All training material should be drafted, and then proofed by the author, SME’s, and other team players as needed, and edited for final version. During this phase, review and revise the program according to feedback provided. Typically, the development phase moves from your “beta” phase to your “final” phase of development
PHASE IV: Implementation/Training Delivery
During the implementation phase, any or all of the following are performed:
- A procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed and delivered
- Conducting train-the-trainer programs for core trainers (this may be needed if core trainers are being used in conjunction with the development team for rollout and go live for the actual training
- Installation of all online training modules, which may include transfer of files, activating modules, establishing logins, etc.
- Going live and rolling out all training modules.
At the conclusion of the training, attendees should be able to accomplish the objectives and goals defined at the start of the process. It is important to measure training effectiveness and research ways to continually improve and enhance initiatives and programs.
This may include a paper evaluation sheet, pre or post-tests to assess the learner, interviewing learners and employee performance measurement techniques. For more information on Evaluating Training Programs, click here.
As an Instructional Designer, Teacher, Instructor or E-Learning Developer, follow the ADDIE model as described in this article when creating training programs. This will help you meet your goals and establish a successful training program. In addition:
- Consider including a combination of training materials and instructional methodologies, including a training manual, online reference, web-based training modules and/or instructor-led classes.
- Be sure to include an evaluation form for learners to complete after they finish their training program.
- During the implementation process, be sure to collect formative feedback while instructional materials are being created by subject matter experts or other team players. This will ensure that your training modules will suit the learners’ needs and meet your client’s expectations.